What were Bellarmine jugs used for?
These very durable jugs were used for wines, ale, oil, vinegar, or water. A prominent feature of these bottles is a bearded human face which ornaments the neck opposite the handle and below the thickened lip. The affectionately-known “old Gray-beard”, an icon of Bellarmine jugs and their time.
What is Bellarmine pottery?
A Bartmann jug (from German Bartmann, “bearded man”), also called Bellarmine jug, is a type of decorated salt-glazed stoneware that was manufactured in Europe throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, especially in the Cologne region in what is today western Germany.
What were Bartmann jugs used for?
The uses of Bartmann jugs varied considerably: they were known to be used for storing food and drink, for transporting goods, and for decanting wine. Another fascinating use of these Bartmann jugs, however, is as ‘witch bottles’.
How do you make a soda fire?
Soda firing is an atmospheric firing technique where “soda” is introduced into a kiln when it’s above 2300°F. It is sprayed in with a garden sprayer or dropped in wrapped in newspaper. The soda that we use is: sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, and sodium carbonate, which is also known as soda ash.
What is a salt firing?
Salt firing is a vapor-glazing process where salt (sodium chloride) is introduced into kiln firebox at high temperature. The salt vaporizes, and sodium vapor combines with silica in clay surface, forming extremely hard sodium-silicate glaze.
What does soda firing do?
Soda firing is an atmospheric firing technique where “soda” is introduced into a kiln when it’s above 2300°F. The soda vaporizes and is carried on the flame throughout the kiln. The soda vapors create a glaze when it lands on a piece (or a kiln post, or the wall of the kiln).
What is Raku glaze?
The Raku technique is essentially when glazed ceramics are taken from the kiln while they are still glowing red hot and are then placed in a material that would be able to catch fire, such as sawdust or newspaper. This technique is used to starve the piece of oxygen, which creates a myriad of colors within the glaze.
Why are they called Bellarmine jugs?
The stoneware vessels are also known as “Bellarmine” jugs because of their association with the Catholic cardinal, Roberto Bellarmino (1542–1621 AD), a strong opponent of Protestantism who wanted to ban alcohol.
What is a Bellarmine stoneware bottle?
This type of stoneware bottle (salt-glazed) was made in the Netherlands and incorporated a stamped image of Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621). This man was a bitter opponent of the Dutch Reformed Church and thus it was common for Protestants who disliked him to smash the jugs!
Where did Alex find his first Bellarmine jug?
When Alex found his first Bellarmine jug in Kings Lynn, England in 1976, his life-long passion and fascination with the German stoneware jugs began. “I found my first Bellarmine embedded in the side of a large pit on a building site.
What is a Bellarmine face?
Each Bellarmine face is unique, and I have found many types of bearded faces in the River Thames (above). In the 16th century, the exquisite faces were created with great skill and detail. As the production and exportation of the jugs increased, the faces became more grotesque and crude in the 17th century.