What is the pathophysiology of endometrial cancer?
Doctors don’t know what causes endometrial cancer. What’s known is that something occurs to create changes (mutations) in the DNA of cells in the endometrium — the lining of the uterus. The mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells.
What is portec trial?
The PORTEC-3 trial was initiated to investigate the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy during and after radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) versus pelvic radiotherapy alone for women with high-risk endometrial cancer.
The PORTEC-3 trial investigated the benefit of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy versus pelvic radiotherapy alone for women with high-risk endometrial cancer.
Which endometrial pathology is a precursor to endometrial cancer?
Atypical hyperplasia is recognized as the precursor for the endometrioid type of endometrial carcinoma and endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) as the precursor of serous carcinoma, the most common non-endometrioid type of endometrial carcinoma.
Which disorder is a recognized risk factor for endometrial carcinoma?
Many factors affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer, including: Obesity. Things that affect hormone levels, like taking estrogen after menopause, birth control pills, or tamoxifen; the number of menstrual cycles (over a lifetime), pregnancy, certain ovarian tumors, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
What does Portec stand for?
Nout, R. A. et al. Long-term outcome and quality of life of patients with endometrial carcinoma treated with or without pelvic radiotherapy in the post operative radiation therapy in endometrial carcinoma 1 (PORTEC-1).
Is endometrial cancer adenocarcinoma?
Endometrial cancer This lining is called the endometrium. Most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas. Adeno means that the cells that have become cancerous are the cells of glandular tissue. So for the most common type of womb cancer, the cancer is in the glands of the endometrium.
What is the mechanism of unopposed estrogen in the endometrial carcinogenesis?
The unopposed estrogen hypothesis states that increased levels of estrogen and decreased levels of progesterone cooperate to increase mitotic activity in endometrial cells. Sustained proliferation and greater rates of DNA mutation ultimately result in malignant transformation.
Is secretory endometrium normal?
Secretory endometrium is a non-cancerous change seen in the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus. It is a normal finding in women of reproductive age. The secretory endometrium produces substances necessary to support the implantation of an egg should conception occur.