What is resistant schizophrenia?
The most common definition of treatment-resistant schizophrenia denotes patients with schizophrenia who, despite at least two adequate trials of classical neuroleptic drugs, have persistent moderate to severe positive, or disorganisation, or negative symptoms together with poor social and work function over a prolonged …
What neurons are affected by schizophrenia?
Decreased dendritic spines of pyramidal cell neuronal processes and decreased lengths of the dendrites in the cortex of the frontal and temporal lobes in schizophrenia cases have been reported (see Fig.
What makes schizophrenia treatment-resistant?
Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) has been defined as the persistence of symptoms despite ≥2 trials of antipsychotic medications of adequate dose and duration with documented adherence.
What is the best medication for treatment of refractory schizophrenia?
Clozapine has long been the mainstay of treatment for patients with refractory schizophrenia. Considered to be the most effective antipsychotic in this subset of patients, its use is limited primarily by significant adverse effects.
Is dopamine high or low in schizophrenia?
The authors hypothesize that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormally low prefrontal dopamine activity (causing deficit symptoms) leading to excessive dopamine activity in mesolimbic dopamine neurons (causing positive symptoms).
What is residual schizophrenia?
Residual: In people with residual schizophrenia, symptoms of schizophrenia still exist but are weaker than in other subtypes.
What is undifferentiated schizophrenia?
Undifferentiated schizophrenia is a categorization for people who do not fit into the three previous categories. While such individuals do experience significant delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or disorganized or catatonic behavior, their symptoms are not predominantly positive, disorganized,…
What is disorganized schizophrenia (hebephrenic schizophrenia)?
Disorganized schizophrenia (also known as hebephrenic schizophrenia) is characterized by predominantly disorganized symptoms. All of the following must be present to fit the criteria for this subtype:
What is schizophrenia?
INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic mental health disorder characterized by an array of symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, and impaired cognitive ability.