What do activated microglia do?

What do activated microglia do?

Activated Phenotypes of Microglia Due to their heterogeneity, microglia may be induced into several activation phenotypes to detect pathogenic substances and eliminate cell debris, and they can also contribute to nerve regeneration and tissue reconstruction (Li and Barres, 2018).

What do activated microglia release?

Microglial activation results in their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. While release of these factors is typically intended to prevent further damage to CNS tissue, they may also be toxic to neurons and other glial cells.

Are microglia anti-inflammatory?

Interestingly, glioma-infiltrating microglia have been shown to acquire a predominantly anti-inflammatory phenotype, which possibly accounts for their immunosuppressive effect (11).

How does microglia cause inflammation?

Activated microglia at the site of inflammation change their morphology, express increased levels of MHC antigens and become phagocytic (Hayes et al., 1987; 1988). They release inflammatory cytokines that amplify the inflammatory response by activating and recruiting other cells to the brain lesion.

What do microglial cells secrete?

In these pathological contexts, microglia can produce and release neurotoxic (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and glutamate) or neurotrophic molecules, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines, and present self-antigens to effector immune cells.

Why are microglial cells important?

Microglia cells are the immune cells of the central nervous system and consequently play important roles in brain infections and inflammation. Recent in vivo imaging studies have revealed that in the resting healthy brain, microglia are highly dynamic, moving constantly to actively survey the brain parenchyma.

Are microglia good or bad?

In the injured brain microglia can produce neuroprotective factors, clear cellular debris and orchestrate neurorestorative processes that are beneficial for neurological recovery after TBI.