What are the aim of epidemiology?
The principal aim of epidemiology is to identify factors related to the occurrence of disease. Identification of these factors both causal ( causation) and risk factors, enable developing a rational basis for prevention ( epidemiology, prevention).
What are the basic principles of epidemiology?
Principles of Epidemiology
- Distribution – Epidemiology is concerned with the frequency and pattern of health events in a population.
- Determinants – Epidemiology is also used to search for causes and other factors that influence the occurrence of health-related events.
What is the epidemiological triangle?
The Epidemiologic Triangle, sometimes referred to as the Epidemiologic Triad, is a tool that scientists use for addressing the three components that contribute to the spread of disease: an external agent, a susceptible host and an environment that brings the agent and host together.
What are the 5 steps of surveillance?
Steps in carrying out surveillance
- Reporting. Someone has to record the data.
- Data accumulation. Someone has to be responsible for collecting the data from all the reporters and putting it all together.
- Data analysis. Someone has to look at the data to calculate rates of disease, changes in disease rates, etc.
- Judgment and action.
What are the 4 environmental factors?
Environmental factors include temperature, food, pollutants, population density, sound, light, and parasites. The diversity of environmental stresses that have been shown to cause an increase in asymmetry is probably not exclusive; many other kinds of stress might provide similar effects.
What is the purpose of epidemiological studies?
Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom disease has already developed.
What are the two main goals of epidemiology?
The goal of epidemiology as a practice is preventing and controlling disease, guiding health and health care policy and planning, and improving health care in individuals. Epidemiological variables should meet the purposes of epidemiology.
What is the meaning of epidemiological?
By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).
What are 3 causes of non communicable diseases?
Four main NCDs and their common risk factors. The four leading NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes) share four risk factors: tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity.
What is the most common communicable disease?
According to current statistics, hepatitis B is the most common infectious disease in the world, affecting some 2 billion people — that’s more than one-quarter of the world’s population.
What is a communicable disease?
Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases or transmissible diseases, are illnesses that result from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic (capable of causing disease) biologic agents in an individual human or other animal host.
What are the factors of communicable diseases?
Six factors are involved in the transmission of communicable diseases: the infectious agent, the reservoir, route of exit, mode of transmission, route of entry, and the susceptible host. A reservoir is a human, another animal, or a non-living thing (such as soil), where the infectious agent normally lives.
How many types of communicable disease are there?
Millions of different viruses may exist, but researchers have only identified about 5,000 types to date.
What are types of epidemiology?
Epidemiological studies generally fall into four broad categories: cross-sectional studies. case-control studies. cohort studies.
What are epidemiological factors?
1: Epidemiologic Factors Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.
What are the branches of epidemiology?
- Cancer Epidemiology.
- Cardiovascular Epidemiology.
- Clinical Epidemiology.
- Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology.
- Epidemiologic Methods.
- Epidemiology of Aging.
- Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics.
- Infectious Disease Epidemiology.
What are the different types of epidemiological studies?
The two most common types of observational studies are cohort studies and case-control studies; a third type is cross-sectional studies.
- Cohort study. A cohort study is similar in concept to the experimental study.
- Case-control study.
- Cross-sectional study.
What are the top 3 communicable diseases?
List of Communicable Diseases
- Enterovirus D68.
- Hepatitis A.
- Hepatitis B.
What are the 4 types of communicable diseases?
- Influenza. Norovirus. Mumps. Tuberculosis.
- Pertussis. Zika virus. West Nile virus.
- Ebola. Chikungunya virus. Coronavirus (COVID-19)
What are the 3 main elements of descriptive epidemiology?
Descriptive epidemiology covers time, place, and person. Compiling and analyzing data by time, place, and person is desirable for several reasons.
What are 4 uncontrollable risk factors?
The “uncontrollable” risk factors are: Age (the risk increases with age)…The “controllable” risk factors are:
- High blood pressure.
- High blood cholesterol.
- High blood sugar (diabetes)
- Obesity and overweight.
- Obesity and Overweight.
- Physical inactivity.
What are the three types of epidemiological studies?
Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000). A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time.
What are the 5 most common infectious diseases?
Common Infectious Diseases
- Common cold.
- E. coli.
- Infectious mononucleosis.
- Influenza (flu)
What are the three components of the epidemiological triangle?
A number of models of disease causation have been proposed. Among the simplest of these is the epidemiologic triad or triangle, the traditional model for infectious disease. The triad consists of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together.
What are the four uses of epidemiology?
For community diagnosis of the presence, nature and distribution of health and disease among the population, and the dimensions of these in incidence, prevalence, and mortality; taking into account that society is changing and health problems are changing. To study the workings of health services.
What is epidemiological studies?
Epidemiologic studies are the foundation for disease control and prevention through tracking the prevalence of the disease, characterizing the natural history, and identifying determinants or causes of the disease. . It defines risk factors for a disease and targets for preventive medicine.