Is thalassemia an extravascular hemolysis?

Is thalassemia an extravascular hemolysis?

Anemia is the most basic clinical characteristic of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. In sickle cell disease, the polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) causes profound changes in the integrity and viability of the erythrocyte, leading to both extravascular and intravascular hemolysis.

What causes extravascular haemolysis?

When large amounts of drug coat the cell surface, the antibody binds the cell membrane and causes extravascular hemolysis. Quinine-induced hemolysis is the prototype of the immune complex mechanism, in which the drug induces IgM antibody production.

Which are typical findings in extravascular hemolysis?

Extravascular hemolysis usually results from more subtle RBC destruction, typically with chronic splenic enlargement and jaundice. Extravascular hemolysis is more common with RBC membrane disorders such as hereditary spherocytosis.

Where does extravascular hemolysis occur?

Extravascular hemolysis occurs when RBCs are phagocytized by macrophages in the spleen, liver and bone marrow (see image of an erythrophage to the right). Extravascular hemolysis is always present in an animal with a hemolytic anemia in animals.

Is malaria intravascular or extravascular hemolysis?

Intravascular hemolysis is a common pathological condition in a wide variety of diseases, including malaria, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia (1, 2). Irrespective of the cases, severe hemolysis leads to several systemic complications and severe organ damage (1, 3–5).

Why is there splenomegaly in extravascular hemolysis?

Splenomegaly is usually associated with increased workload (such as in hemolytic anemias), which suggests that it is a response to hyperfunction. It is therefore not surprising that splenomegaly is associated with any disease process that involves abnormal red blood cells being destroyed in the spleen.

Is there jaundice in intravascular hemolysis?

In both forms of hemolysis, there is anemia and jaundice. Hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria occur only in intravascular hemolysis. Hypertrophy of the mononuclear phagocyte system and consequent splenomegaly are seen only in extravascular hemolysis.

Does intravascular or extravascular hemolysis cause jaundice?