What is the main purpose of epidemiology?
Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom disease has already developed.
What diseases are caused by a virus?
What are viral diseases?
- Flu (influenza)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS)
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Infectious mononucleosis.
- Mumps, measles and rubella.
What are the three components of the disease triangle?
These three elements, pathogen, host, and environmental conditions, make up the disease triangle. The disease triangle is a concept that illustrates the importance of all three elements—just as there are three sides to a triangle, there are three critical factors necessary for disease to develop.
How does epidemiology improve health?
It is important as it can be used to significantly improve the health of Australians by identifying the prevalence of a condition and morbidity and mortality rates of that condition, giving researchers, health department officials and governments indicators of the existence of health problems within a community.
What are the 5 W’s of epidemiology?
The difference is that epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the 5 W’s: diagnosis or health event (what), person (who), place (where), time (when), and causes, risk factors, and modes of transmission (why/how).
Why do viruses make you feel so bad?
When you’re sick, you might also feel grumpy or sad. That’s because the macrophages fighting the infection in your body send out cytokines. These cytokines can affect the parts of your brain that deal with emotions and reasoning.
How do viruses damage the body?
Viruses are like hijackers. They invade living, normal cells and use those cells to multiply and produce other viruses like themselves. This can kill, damage, or change the cells and make you sick. Different viruses attack certain cells in your body such as your liver, respiratory system, or blood.
What to do when you wake up and your body is sore?
4 Things To Do if You Wake Up Feeling Achy
- Drink Up. Your body loses a lot of water at night while you’re sleeping, mostly through sweat and breath.
- Breathe! Deep breathing is so powerful that it’s routinely used as a way to relax the body, alleviate tension and stress, and decrease pain.
- Get Moving.
- Consult With a Physical Therapist.
What are the 3 factors that cause disease?
Infectious diseases can be caused by:
- Bacteria. These one-cell organisms are responsible for illnesses such as strep throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis.
- Viruses. Even smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a multitude of diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS.
What are the 5 main objectives of epidemiology?
In the mid-1980s, five major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice were identified: public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluation, and linkages.
How do you explain epidemiology?
By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).
What kind of vitamin deficiency makes you cold?
Lack of vitamin B12 and iron deficiency can cause anemia and lead you to feel cold.
Where is the most bacteria found in the human body?
Where are Bacteria in the Human Body? Bacteria live on the skin, inside the nose, in the throat, in the mouth, in the vagina, and in the gut. The majority of the bacteria found in the body live in the human gut.
What are the three most essential elements of descriptive epidemiology?
In descriptive epidemiology, we organize and summarize data according to time, place, and person. These three characteristics are sometimes called the epidemiologic variables.
Why Do Viruses harm us?
Your cells resent being taken over by viruses. They alert the immune system, which responds by raising your body temperature (viruses hate that, as their replication mechanisms work better at lower temperatures), and creating inflammation to destroy viral particles and infected cells.
How the stress contributed to the development of diseases?
Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and suppressor T cells levels, which suppress the immune system.
How do viruses make us ill GCSE?
Viruses make us sick by killing cells or disrupting cell function. Sometimes they kill cells and tissues outright. Sometimes they make toxins that can paralyze, destroy cells’ metabolic machinery, or precipitate a massive immune reaction that is itself toxic.
Why does my body ache when I wake up in the morning?
Morning body aches can be caused by a lack of good quality sleep, which deprives your body’s tissues and cells of repair time. An effective way to improve sleep is with exercise, which tires the body and reduces stress, helping to improve both the quality of your sleep, and the amount of sleep that you get each night.
Why does your body hurt when you’re sick?
What’s causing the pain? When infected by a virus, the body mounts an immune response, sending antibodies to seek out attack the virus, blocking it from spreading further. “The pain you feel in your joints when you have the flu is due to the body’s immune response, not the actual flu,” Donaldson says.
What effect does bacteria have on the body?
Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, and give the body needed vitamins. Bacteria are also used in making healthy foods like yogurt and cheese. But infectious bacteria can make you ill. They reproduce quickly in your body.
What is an epidemiologic triangle?
The Epidemiologic Triangle, sometimes referred to as the Epidemiologic Triad, is a tool that scientists use for addressing the three components that contribute to the spread of disease: an external agent, a susceptible host and an environment that brings the agent and host together.
Why can’t drugs that kill bacteria kill viruses?
Viruses don’t have cell walls that can be attacked by antibiotics; instead they are surrounded by a protective protein coat. Unlike bacteria, which attack your body’s cells from the outside, viruses actually move into, live in and make copies of themselves in your body’s cells.
Can virus cause back pain?
When viral infection affects the spinal cord directly, it is referred to as myelitis; and back pain and spinal cord dysfunction commonly result. When encephalitis and myelitis occur together, it is referred to as encephalomyelitis. There are many viruses that can cause meningitis, encephalitis or myelitis.
What are the three components of epidemiology?
The epidemiologic triangle is made up of three parts: agent, host and environment.
What are the four stages of natural history of disease?
Events that occur in the natural history of a communicable disease are grouped into four stages: exposure, infection, infectious disease, and outcome (see Figure 1.6). We will briefly discuss each of them in turn.
What are the key characteristics of epidemiology?
It extracts six types of epidemiological characteristic: design of the study, population that has been studied, exposure, outcome, covariates and effect size.
How does disease develop?
Infection occurs when viruses, bacteria, or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease, which typically happens in a small proportion of infected people, occurs when the cells in your body are damaged as a result of infection, and signs and symptoms of an illness appear.